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See also Borgeaud , 59— On xoana, see Donohue , Platt , 92— , and Gaifmann , 77— As for Herakles, we learn that as a reward for his contribution in Marathon he was honoured with a penteteric festival, the so-called Herakleia, and athletic games SEG Platvoet and As Fritz Graf puts it, to the Greek mind, epiphanies did take place.

When overcoming physical or cultural limitations, the Greeks felt a little closer to their gods and a little more godlike themselves. In that sense epiphany had a major impact on the formation of their cultural identity. Furthermore, epiphany pro- vided a minority of privileged individuals with the essential god-sent prestige and validity to resolve certain crises authorizing function and subsequently it proved itself to be a useful heuristic tool to perpetuate or, alternatively, challenge the current sociopolitical formations and power structures.

The majority of epiphanic manifestations, however, functioned as crisis man- agement tools. Who needs mortal summachoi when they can enjoy a divine alliance? On the sociopolitical function of epiphanies, see chapter 8. Hippias ; the Persian massacre in Psyttaleia Paus. Epiphanies as a sign of theophilia is only one of the aspects of what can be termed synchronic semantics, namely one of the complex nexus of meanings the contemporary communities and individuals applied to these divine manifest- ations.

It is rather the introduction of the cult into the civic pantheon, cult calendar, and complex of religious artefacts that we should have in mind. More on this topic in chapter 6. Conveniently enough, three important studies of the material representation of the divine body in its various forms anthropomorphic, aniconic, and hybridic have appeared in the last few years.

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Epiphanies are not restricted to litera- ture, and thus cannot simply be treated as a literary construct. Epiphany is, rather, a trans-categorical element that permeates Greek language and art as much as it does Greek religiosity and culture. The resolution of a crisis is more commonly than not followed by the introduction of some sort of commemorative structure, i. Thus, the original epiphany ends up operating as the aition, the reason behind the establishing of these cultic features. The focus depends heavily, among other factors, on the larger generic context of the narrative.

Pausanias in his Periegesis, for instance, tends to look at the commemorative aspect of an epiphanic event and report the aition, i. Chapters 1 to 7 deal with questions of who, when, to whom, and how, whilst in the last of these I also address questions like why and who for. It is there that I look at the correlations of the different forms and contexts the Greek deities take and the contexts in which they manifest their godhead with the corres- ponding sociopolitical functions these epiphanies perform—thus forming a comprehensive conceptualizing tool that offers a better insight into the central- ity, and the problematics, of the epiphanic schema.

In particular, chapter 1 examines the various forms of divine epiphany, i. Contrary to prevailing ideas about the predominance of anthropo- morphism in representing the divine in Greek culture and religious ideas and practices, this chapter argues that Greek deities entertained a rich gamut of appearances and disguises in their interaction with the human terrain.

Finally, the Greek gods also manifested themselves in the shape of an animal zoomorphic ; or in no shape at all. All these different forms of divine bodily physiognomy pose similar challenges for their perceivers, of which the most important is to penetrate the initial facade behind which the divine appears and recognize the divine within.

Σήματα νίκης: Inscribed Objects in the Lindian Chronicle

There are rich rewards for those who do penetrate the form to reach the content and dire consequences for those who do not. The perceivers of the epiphany may be humans, animals, other gods, or even the natural world as a whole. At this point, it is important to emphasize that each of the forms discussed in chapter 1 can signify the divine presence equally effectively. The shape into which the divine chooses to manifest itself depends heavily on the spatio-temporal context of the epiphany as discussed in chapter 2 and the identity of the perceiver, since a recognizable shape increases receivability see the discussion of the notion of functional metamorphosis in chapter 1.

Anthropomorphic epiphanies are to be found in all contexts discussed in chapter 2: battle, siege, stratagems, and disease, in remotis, sex, mystery cult, festival, and theoxenia. Anthropomorphism may have been a popular way of representing the divine but it was by no means the only one. Enacted epiphanies were also very prominent in the festival context in 99 E. As far as this last context is concerned, it goes without saying that we can only speculate about the form of divine epiphanies that took place in the course of the initiatory process of the various mystery cults. Metonymic epiphanies, a subcategory of pars pro toto epiphanies, were common in advent festivals, in mystery cults, and in remotis.

In chapters 2 to 7 I discuss the contextual aspect of epiphany. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 deal with epiphanies taking place in warfare, illness, and in remote landscapes, while chapters 6 and 7 address issues related to epiphanies that take place in a cultic context, that is in mystery cults, festivals, and theoxenies. Chapter 5 is devoted to erotic epiphanies, namely to divine manifestations which occurred before, after, or during erotic encounters.

Chapter 5 is sandwiched between what can be roughly termed crisis and cultic epiphanies precisely because it oscillates between the two.

The Chronicles of Epiphany Jones (Volume 1)

Finally, chapter 8 pulls the individual threads of the investigation together and shifts the focus onto the functions of the epiphanic schema in Greek culture. When the Greek deities did not manifest themselves voluntarily, stratagematic epiphanies or else epiphanic stratagems were employed by religious or political authorities to deal with a critical situation chapter 2. In a disease context, epiphanies were employed as diagnostic or therapeutic tools chapter 3 , while in remotis epiphanies endowed prophets and poets with the power to see and celebrate the divine chapter 4.

Both erotic and in remotis epiphanies take place in marginal landscapes meadows, caves, rivers, springs, mountains, etc. The eschatiai are also the spatial context of mystic epiphanies, that is epiphanies that take place in the course of an initiatory process in a mystery cult.

Sleep and dreams become an important medium of mortal— immortal interaction in healing, erotic, and in remotis contexts. They guarantee privacy and one-to-one interaction. Epiphanic festivals commemorate and celebrate a divine manifestation that took place in the past, while simultaneously securing divine alliance and protec- tion for the times to come chapter 6.

Because contact with the divine could be an ambiguous and potentially dangerous process when unexpected and unprepared, epiphanic festivals also represent an attempt on behalf of the human worshippers to control and regulate the divine visitations via means of ritual performance. Boundaries may be crossed temporarily but the perman- ent world order is not endangered. Epiph- anies that take place at a critical moment often provide their perceivers with a rather effective tool to deal with the crisis crisis management function ; while other epiphanies elucidate the paradoxical coexistence of prima facie incompatible events or experiences and provide these events or experiences with a culturally meaningful cause—effect relationship explanatory function.

Epiphanies offer knowledge and power, thus reinforcing old power structures or creating new ones. The aforementioned functional categories, con- ceptually distinct though they may be, often feature jointly in the same narrative. Epiphanies pose both sensorial and intellectual challenges that rise above the human capacity for perception and analysis.

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Panhellenic festival, and athletic games are instituted, and asylia is granted to the city only after the Delphic oracle has been consult- ed. The apparition, nevertheless, needed further decipherment, and the Delphic oracle had to be consulted. Encountering a god in whatever shape or form, either in dream visions or in waking life, was a life-changing event and one that often required further Paus. Plutarch in his Pyrrhos Similarly, in the battle of Thurii in bc the Romans saw a young man of extraordinary height marching in front of them, encouraging them, and performing miracles of bravery magnitudinis iuuenis primum eos hortari ad capessendam fortitudinem coepit.

On the poetics of sight in Greek epiphany see Henrichs , 33—4 with further bibliography. Sosin, TAPhA , , — The priestess of Thesmophoros Demeter Alexandra poses the following question: why is it that since she took up the priesthood never before had the gods made themselves that manifest through oneiric epiphanies. On the one hand this has happened in the form of virgins and married women, and on the other hand in the form of males and children; what kind of thing is this and whether it is propitious.

The god replied as follows: Immortals consort with mortals. Alexandra inquired why, since she took up the priesthood, the gods have manifested themselves with unprecedented frequency, in a variety of shapes and forms. Even so, the key theme of the oracular response is clearly discernible: epiphanies can function as status-elevation mechanisms, as chapter 8 shows. Epiphanies bestow honour and prestige upon their perceivers. Alexandra enjoyed a close I. Didyma ; Hellenica 11—12, pp. Van Straten , 17 rightly emphasizes that epistasis is the technical term for divine manifestation in dreams.

Compare here the formulae ho theos epistas in the Epidaurian Iamata and its female counterpart epistasa for the dream manifestation of Athena Lindia in the temple Chronicle.

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The same scholar then interprets the oracle as meaning that the priestess expresses her worry about the unprecedented frequency of epiphanies in the dreams not only of girls and women, but also of men and infants. In this view, the dream visions were perceived by the people mentioned not by the priestess. Van Straten is partly right, because in both examples he quotes dia is followed by the name of a priest, which could indeed mean that the deity appeared in his or her dream.

I have, therefore, taken it to mean that it was the priestess who dreamt of the divinities in the shape of virgins, married women, men, and infants. Of course, it is also entirely possible that Alexandra went to the trouble and the expense of asking for a Didymeian response to her troubles simply because she strongly desired that her community and why not posterity as well? What Alexandra, priestess of Demeter, was after was apparently a loud, clear, and, above all, public declaration of her intimate relationship with the divine. Possible metamorphoses range from changing shape turning into an animal, a stone, becoming pregnant, or disabled to death.

A sudden encounter with the divine undisguised and in full majesty may result in a wide spectrum of human disasters, ranging from unconsciousness, paralysis, and blindness to death itself. Notable examples include Iodama, the priestess who encountered Athena in the middle of the night at her temple in Boeotia and was turned into stone; Semele, who encountered Zeus in full majesty and died; Teiresias, who unwillingly laid eyes on a naked Athena and lost his vision; and Actaeon, who saw Artemis bathing and was turned into a deer that was eventually devoured by his own hunting dogs.

A constant dynamic interplay between the manifest outer structure and the concealed, inner structure dominates mortal—immortal interaction in Greek cul- ture. But this dichotomy does not come without its problems.

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  4. Even in cases where the divine manifests itself in zoomorphic form, as a phasma, as pars pro toto, or in amorphous shape, in every single case the perceiver is challenged to discover the god within. Teiresias: Call. Steiner , 80—2. It Ancient Greek Religion Available in hardback and paperback demonstrates that divine epiphanies not only reveal what the Greeks thought about their Edited by Esther Eidinow and Julia Kindt gods; they tell us just as much about the preoccupations, the preconceptions, and the e piphany oxford handbooks in classics assumptions of ancient Greek religion and culture.

    In doing so, it explores the deities who and ancient history were prone to epiphany and the contexts in which they manifested themselves, as well as the functions narratives and situational they served, addressing the cultural speciicity of Dithyramb in Context divine morphology and mortal—immortal interaction. Divine Epiphany in Greek Literature Edited by Barbara Kowalzig and Peter Wilson in greek literature and Culture re-establishes epiphany as a crucial mode in Greek religious thought and practice, underlines its centrality in Greek cultural production, and foregrounds its impact on both the political and the societal organization of the ancient Greeks.

    Related Papers. North, S. Price ed. By Nicole Belayche. By Emily Baragwanath. Svenbro [] , p. Gallavotti , p. Others have excised on narrative grounds; Mastronarde does not concur but does not fully dismiss bracketing , whose dramatic purpose he nonetheless defends Mastronarde , p. On the text and its context, see Stupperich , p. You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books.

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    Desktop version Mobile version. Results per book Results per chapter. Parures divines. Dossier : Place aux objets! Search inside the book.

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    Table of contents. Cite Share. Cited by. Athena Kirk. Full text. Line 4 is incomplete and has been restored in numerous ways, b This serves an example of his more extended discussion of two kinds of matter They do not accord with any known tribal names For a detailed an For a pinax with four-line poem dedi Svenbro [] , p Notes 1 Text from the Higbie Author Athena Kirk.

    Read Open Access. Freemium Recommend to your library for acquisition. Buy Print version Place des libraires leslibraires. KIRK, Athena. ISBN: DOI: Kirk, A. Kirk, Athena. New edition [online]. Your e-mail has be sent. Size: small x px Medium x px Large x px. TV news! From here on in, the two storylines slowly converge. As predicted, Air Chrysalis , rewritten by Tengo, becomes a bestseller.

    We learn that Tengo and Aomame were briefly at school together, and once, aged ten, moved by a shared sense of being outcasts, held hands in an empty classroom.

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    Information is dispensed in a controlled, thrifty manner; tropes from high and low culture are handled with easy showmanship; further plotlines and curlicues are effortlessly thrown out. On its first publication, the novel ended there. Book 3 came out a year later in Japan, and the eventual happy ending was a feat of audience-tweaking on a Dickensian scale. Even judged by such standards, however, the last third of the book is a let-down, with all the narrative tension coming from the question of how long Murakami can keep throwing up obstacles to the long-promised Tengo-Aomame reunion.

    Ushikawa, a hideously ugly investigator hired by the cult to keep tabs on Tengo, helps the book along by taking up duties as a colourful focal character. We are living in a fake world; we are watching fake evening news. We are fighting a fake war. Our government is fake. But we find reality in this fake world … We are walking through fake scenes, but ourselves, as we walk through these scenes, are real.

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    The situation is real. Stop fucking around, stop living in a dream, get over your social isolation, start a serious relationship, have a child: these are more or less the precepts the protagonists act out. The Little People are repeatedly said to be beyond such notions as good and evil, but since their actions include causing a dog to explode, assigning nasty fates to women and making a man have sex with cocoon-grown doubles of children, they seem to function as baddies.